History of the Computer Part 2 - 1970-1980

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1973 HP 65

The HP-65 was the first magnetic card-programmable handheld calculator. Introduced by Hewlett-Packard in 1974, it featured nine storage registers and room for 100 keystroke instructions. It also included a magnetic card reader/writer. Like all Hewlett-Packard calculators of the era and most since, the HP-65 used reverse Polish notation (RPN) and a four-level automatic operand stack.

1973 Xerox Alto

The Xerox Alto was an early personal computer developed at Xerox PARC in 1973. It was the first computer to use the desktop metaphor and graphical user interface (GUI).

1974 Altair 8800

The MITS Altair 8800 was a microcomputer design from 1975 based on the Intel 8080 CPU and sold by mail order through advertisements in Popular Electronics, Radio-Electronics and other hobbyist magazines. Both kits and fully assembled machines were available (the serial number of a kit ends with a K). The designers intended to sell only a few hundred to hobbyists, and were surprised when they sold thousands in the first month.

1975 Imsai Series 2

This machine was used in the succesfull movie Wargames

1977 Cray I Supercomputer

The Cray-1 was a supercomputer designed by a team including Seymour Cray for Cray Research. The first Cray-1 system was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1976, and it went on to become one of the best known and most successful supercomputers in history.

1977 Commodore PET

The Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) was a home/personal computer produced by Commodore starting in 1977. [2] It was a top seller in the Canadian, United States, and United Kingdom educational markets, and was Commodore's first full-featured computer and would form the basis for their entire 8-bit platform.

1977 TRS-80

TRS-80 was Tandy Corporation's desktop microcomputer model line, sold through Tandy's Radio Shack stores in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The line won popularity with hobbyists, home users, and small-businesses.

1977 Apple //

The Apple II (often rendered or written as Apple ][ or Apple //) was one of the first highly successful mass produced microcomputer products[1], manufactured by Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) and introduced in 1977. In terms of ease of use, features and expandability the Apple II was a major technological advancement over its predecessor, the Apple I, a limited production bare circuit board computer for electronics hobbyists which pioneered many features that made the Apple II a commercial success.

1978 VAX-11/780

VAX was an instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s. A 32-bit complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA, it was designed to extend or replace DEC's various Programmed Data Processor (PDP) ISAs. The VAX name was also used by DEC for a family of computer systems based on this processor architecture.

1979 Atari 400-800

The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers manufactured from 1979 to 1992. All are based on the MOS Technology 6502 CPU and were the first home computers designed with custom coprocessor chips. Over the following decade several versions of the same basic design were released, including the original Atari 400 and 800 and their successors, the XL and XE series of computers.

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